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I is a nearly circular formation that covers one third of the sky. In
reality, it is probably a spherical ‘bubble’ that stretches to more than
100º across, making it wider than 200 full Moons. Its absolute size,
however, is extremely uncertain because astronomers do not know how
close it is to us: estimates to the centre of the bubble vary from 400
light-years to 25 000 light-years.
What they do know is that the structure shows up in many different wavelengths, from radio waves to gamma rays. Planck
sees Loop I in microwaves. This image’s colours reflect the
polarisation – the direction in which the microwaves are oscillating.
eyes are not sensitive to this information in the visible light, where
we perceive only the intensity and colour. Planck, however, can detect
all three of these characteristics in the microwaves it targets.
The microwaves detected by Planck are emitted by electrons that are being accelerated by the Galaxy’s magnetic field.
I is most visible in the sky’s northern hemisphere. Astronomers refer
to this portion as the north polar spur. It can be seen in this image as
the yellow arc. This fades to purple and can be traced into the
southern hemisphere, completing the circle. The blue band spanning the
image horizontally is the Galactic Plane.
The most popular
interpretation places Loop I close to us. If this is correct, it could
be related to the ‘Scorpius–Centaurus OB Association’, a region of
high-mass star formation that has been active for over 10 million years.
Loop I could well be a supernova remnant, a giant bubble hollowed out
by the explosion of stars in the OB association.
responsible for Loop I have long since dispersed, so what we see is the
‘smoke’ rather than the ‘fire’ of the explosions.
burn their nuclear fuel so quickly that they live only a few million
years before exploding. As these titanic supernovas bloom, their blast
waves carve bubbles in the surrounding gas. This compresses the Galaxy’s
magnetic field into the bubble ‘walls’, making it stronger and more
efficient at accelerating the electrons to produce the observed
Loop I could well be the combined super-bubble from a
number of such cataclysms. As the electrons lose energy and diffuse into
the wider Galaxy, so Loop I will eventually fade and disappear. This is
likely to take a few million years.
If the loop is more distant,
then it could conceivably be the result of an outburst from around the
black hole at the centre of the Galaxy.
(A version of the image showing the position of Loop I is available here.
The colour represents the direction of polarisation, while the
brightness of the colour measures the intensity of polarisation.)